The purpose of a paraphrase is to give the reader (or listener) a restatement of the original lecture or text. Most importantly, the paraphrase expresses the ideas presented in the original source completely and accurately but does not include the writer's (speaker's) own opinion or any additional information.
NOTE: For purposes of academic integrity and to avoid plagiarism, paraphrases must indicate the source in two ways
To write an effective paraphrase, follow these steps:
Before writing the paraphrase:
Writing your paraphrase:
According to ______________ (year),
(author's last name) (restatement of the main idea)
__________________ (year) states/reports/claims/argues/contends/posits/maintains/proposes/observes/concludes
(author's last name) (reporting verb--usually in Simple Present tense) (restatement of the main idea)
(author's last name, year).
(restatement of the main idea)
Reminder phrases: If you need to refer to the same source in another sentence, you should remind the reader that you are paraphrasing by using "reminder phrases" like these:
CITING SOURCES: See Citation of Electronic Sources (APA Style). Use a citation engine or the University of North Carolina Library's link to a citation builder to "build" a citation. Some examples of paraphrases and in-text citations can be found here.
© 2006 Christine Bauer-Ramazani, Saint Michael's College. Last updated: February 26, 2013