Citation of Electronic Sources (APA Style)

In-text Citations of Electronic Sources and Examples | References for Electronic Sources | Some Rules for Order of Items in References, Quotations, Punctuation, Capitalization | Examples of References for BU 113 |

According to the 6th (2009) edition of the APA Manual, electronic sources include the following: online periodicals, online scholarly journal articles, databases, newspaper articles, electronic books and book chapters, online book reviews, dissertation/thesis from a database, online encyclopedias/dictionaries, online bibliographies, data sets, graphic data (e.g. maps), qualitative data and online interviews, online lecture notes and presentation slides, Web documents/pages/reports, computer software/downloaded software, e-mail, online forum/discussion board posting, blog/vlog post, Wikis, audio/video podcast.

CITATION EXAMPLES:
For citation examples (in-text and references) of many different types please refer to

In-text Citations of Electronic Sources -- Examples of the most common occurrences

DATES: For newspaper, magazines, periodicals, check for dates at the top. For Web sites, check for dates at the bottom of the Web page, i.e. the copyright date.

  1. Author and date known: If possible, cite an electronic document the same as any other document by using the author-date style.

EXAMPLES: Miller (2010) explained...... OR According to Snow (2012), .....  OR Snow (2012) claims that ..... OR As Snow (2012) shows, ...

  1. No Author: If no author or date is given, use the title in your signal phrase or the first word or two of the title with quotation marks in parentheses. If there is a date, put it in parentheses after the article title. If there is no date, write the article title, followed by the abbreviation "n.d." (for "no date").

EXAMPLE: Another study of students and research decisions discovered that students succeeded with tutoring ("Tutoring and APA," n.d.).

  1. Quoting Sources without Page Numbers (Web pages): When you are quoting from an electronic source that lacks page numbers, try to include information that will help readers find the passage being cited. When an electronic document has numbered paragraphs, use the
    symbol, or the abbreviation "para." followed by the paragraph number.

EXAMPLES:  Hall (2010) states that " . . . " ( 5).  OR Hall (2010) argues that ". . ." (para. 5).

  1. Quoting Sources with Headings but no Page Numbers or Paragraphs (Web pages): If the paragraphs are not numbered and the document includes headings, provide the appropriate heading and specify the paragraph under that heading. Note that in some electronic sources, like Web pages, people can use the Find function in their browser to locate any passages you cite.

EXAMPLE: According to Smith (1997, Mind Over Matter section, para. 6), . . . .

References for Electronic Sources

DATES: For newspaper, magazines, periodicals, check for dates at the top. For Web sites, check for dates at the bottom of the Web page, i.e. the copyright date.

  1. For the purpose of writing the reference list in BU113: Critical Thinking and Communication class, please refer to the specific examples of references for electronic sources in the 3 CITATION EXAMPLES above.

  2. Reference Citation Generator: You may also use RefWorks through the Saint Michael's subscription to help you generate APA references. There are also free citation tools available. NOTE: These machine tools generate citations based on your input. They tend to have errors in capitalization and punctuation, so review the citations carefully.

Some Rules for Order of Items in References, Quotations, Punctuation, Capitalization

  1. Order of items in the references: Works cited must be in alphabetical order by the first letter of the source.

  2. Quotations: All quotations need a page number or paragraph number (for Web pages) in in-text citations. Quotations must be short, i.e. about 3 lines or fewer than 40 words. Quotations longer than that must be indented in block format without quotation marks.
    EXAMPLE: .......... (Snow, 2012, para. 17).

  3. Punctuation / fonts

  4. Capitalization in article or book titles

Examples of References for BU 113

Using Value Line: Give the exact URL for your company!

Value Line Investment Survey Online
 

Macy's (2013, February 1).  Valueline Investment Survey: Ratings and reports.
      Retrieved from
http://www3.valueline.com/secure/vlispdf/stk1700/vlispdf/f3324.pdf.


Value Line Investment Survey
Paper form

 

Name of Company (year, date).  Valueline Investment Survey: Ratings and reports,
     
Issue number, page number. 

Using Yahoo! Finance <http://finance.yahoo.com/> for company research: Give the exact URL for the profile, income statement, balance sheet, and event/announcement for your company.

Microsoft Corp. (MSFT) (2013). Profile, business summary. Yahoo!Finance. Retrieved
       from  http://finance.yahoo.com/q/pr?s=MSFT.
Microsoft Corp. (MSFT).  Income statement, June 29, 2012. Yahoo!Finance. Retrieved
       from http://finance.yahoo.com/q/is?s=MSFT+Income+Statement&annual.
Wingfield, Nick (2011, January 11)Another Microsoft executive to leave. The Wall Street
       Journal
.  Retrieved from http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748703779704576073962170078524.html?ru=yahoo&mod=yahoo_hs

Christine Bauer-Ramazani; this page was last updated: June 16, 2014