Electronic Sources (APA Style)
In-text Citations of Electronic
Sources and Examples | References for Electronic
Some Rules for Order of Items in References, Quotations,
Punctuation, Capitalization |
Examples of References for BU 113 |
According to the 6th
(2009) edition of the APA Manual, electronic sources include
the following: online periodicals, online scholarly journal articles,
databases, newspaper articles, electronic books and book chapters, online
book reviews, dissertation/thesis from a database, online
encyclopedias/dictionaries, online bibliographies, data sets, graphic data
(e.g. maps), qualitative data and online interviews, online lecture notes
and presentation slides, Web documents/pages/reports, computer
software/downloaded software, e-mail, online forum/discussion board
posting, blog/vlog post, Wikis, audio/video podcast.
CITATION EXAMPLES: For citation examples
(in-text and references) of many different types please refer to
In-text Citations of
Electronic Sources -- Examples of the most common occurrences
newspaper, magazines, periodicals, check for dates at the top.
For Web sites, check for dates at the bottom of the Web page,
i.e. the copyright date.
- Author and date known: If
possible, cite an electronic document the same as any other
document by using the author-date style.
EXAMPLES: Miller (2010)
explained...... OR According to Snow (2012), ..... OR Snow
(2012) claims that .....
OR As Snow (2012) shows, ...
- No Author:
If no author or date is given, use the title in your signal
phrase or the first word or two of the title with quotation
marks in parentheses. If there is a date, put it in
parentheses after the article title. If there is no date,
write the article title, followed by the abbreviation "n.d." (for "no date").
EXAMPLE: Another study of students
and research decisions discovered that students
succeeded with tutoring ("Tutoring and APA," n.d.).
- Quoting Sources without Page
Numbers (Web pages): When you are quoting
from an electronic
source that lacks page numbers, try to include
information that will help readers find the passage
being cited. When an electronic document has numbered
paragraphs, use the
¶ symbol, or the
abbreviation "para." followed by the paragraph number.
EXAMPLES: Hall (2010) states that "
. . . " (¶ 5). OR Hall (2010) argues that ". . ." (para. 5).
with Headings but no Page Numbers or Paragraphs (Web
pages): If the paragraphs are not
numbered and the document includes headings, provide the
appropriate heading and specify the paragraph under that
heading. Note that in some electronic sources, like Web
pages, people can use the Find function in their browser
to locate any passages you cite.
EXAMPLE: According to Smith (1997, Mind
over Matter section, para. 6), . . . .
for Electronic Sources
For newspaper, magazines, periodicals, check for dates at the top. For
Web sites, check for dates at the bottom of the Web page, i.e. the
the purpose of writing the reference list in BU113: Critical
Thinking and Communication class, please refer to the specific
examples of references for electronic sources in the 3 CITATION
Reference Citation Generator: You may also use
through the Saint Michael's subscription to help you generate APA
references. There are also
free citation tools
These machine tools generate citations based on your input. They
tend to have errors in capitalization and punctuation, so review the
Some Rules for Order of Items in
References, Quotations, Punctuation, Capitalization
Order of items in the references:
Works cited must be in alphabetical order
by the first letter of the source.
All quotations need a page number or paragraph number (for Web pages)
in in-text citations.
Quotations must be short, i.e. about 3 lines or
fewer than 40 words. Quotations longer than that must be indented in
block format without quotation marks.
EXAMPLE: “…………..........” (Snow, 2012, para. 17).
Punctuation / fonts
Capitalization in article titles
In-text citation (no author):
all words except proper nouns (names).
According to "TransCanada to Work with
Department of State on New Keystone XL Route Options" (2011), . .
capitalize the first letter of the title and subtitle as well as
proper nouns (names).
Using Value Line:
Give the exact URL for your company!
Value Line Investment
Value Line Investment Survey
– Paper form
Name of Company
(year, date). Valueline Investment Survey: Ratings and reports,
research: Give the exact URL for the profile, income
statement, balance sheet, and event/announcement for your company.
Christine Bauer-Ramazani; this
page was last updated: April 8,