Adverse Effect Measures and Suggested Criterion for Comparison

 

MEASURE

EXAMPLE(S)

CRITERION FOR COMPARISON

      Individually-administered

†††† nationally-normed achievement test

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

         Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Tests of Achievement (Cluster Scores)

         Wechsler Individual Achievement Test Skill Areas

         Test of Word Reading Efficiency

         Test of Reading Comprehension

         GRADE Reading Fluency Indicator

         Test of Mathematical Abilities

Scores at or below the 15th percentile or 1 standard deviation below the mean (typically a standard score of 85 or below)

         Grade norms

         Scores reflect performance over time

 

      Nationally normed group administered achievement test

 

         Stanford Achievement Test

         Metropolitan Achievement Test

         Terra Novas

         Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills

Scores at or below the 15th percentile or 1 standard deviation below the mean (typically a standard score of85 or below)

      Grade norms

      Scores reflect performance over time

 

  • Grades

         Standards-based Report Cards

         Teacher-determined grading systems

         IEP-based individualized grading systems

Generally, in comparison to the Vermont Framework of Standards and Learning Opportunities

         In heterogeneous classrooms, the studentís grade is among the lowest 15% of grade level classmates

         Otherwise, the studentís grades represent the lowest 15% in comparison to the expected level of performance for average grade level peers.

 

      Curriculum-based measures;

†††† Teacher made tests

 

 

 

Curriculum-based measures continued

         Teacher made tests

         Charts, graphs, checklists indicating student performance over time

         Standardized benchmark assessment (AIMSWEB, DIBELS),

         Continuous progress monitoring

         Running records/fluency measures

         Math mad minutes

 

Comparison to performance of average grade level peers on same measure

         Performance indicates that the student is among the lowest 15%

 

 

 

      Individually-administered

†††† Criterion-Referenced Tests

 

 

 

  • Group-administered Criterion-Referenced Tests

 

 

         Qualitative Reading Inventory-4 (QRI-4)

         Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS)

         Brigance Inventories

 

 

         Primary Observation Assessment (POA)

         Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA)

         Writing on demand prompt

         VT Writing/Math portfolio

         NECAP

 

Test results indicate that the student lacks skills or knowledge typical of an average student at the studentís grade level

 

 

 

Comparison to performance of average grade level peers on same measure in relation to VT Framework and Standards of Learning Opportunities

            Performance indicates that the student is among the lowest 15%

 

      Other Individualized measures of

adverse effect

            Student Work

            Language Samples

         Classroom Portfolios

Comparison to performance of average grade level peers on same measure

Performance indicates that the student is among the lowest 15%

 

 

 

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Vermont Department of Education Student Support Team revised 10/06