Women and the Bible
   Women - Bible - Ordination
   Articles on home churches, ministry, priest
   Roman documents
   Who Presided at the Eucharist?



Women of the Gospel of Mark
Mitzi Minor: The Women of the Gospel of Mark and Contemporary Women's Spirituality 

The Prominence of Women in the Gospel of Luke   
Michael Morrison

"Roles of Women in the Fourth Gospel"
Raymond Brown, Theological Studies, 36/4 (December 1975): 688.

Mary Magdalene   
Wikipedia. Multiple links.

Paul and Women   
Jerome Murphy O'Connor, Cettina Militello, Maria-Luisa Rigato

Feminist Companion to Paul 

Women and Gender
Dr. Mark Goodacre, University of Birmingham

Women and Gender: Books, Article and Reviews 
Mark Goodacre blog.

Materials for the study of women and gender in the ancient world.

Back to the Well: Womens Encounters with Jesus in the Gospels
Review of the book by Framces Taylor Gench.
(Louisville: WJK Press, 2004). Pp. xvi+192. $US19.95..|

Women in the Bible   
Elizabeth Fletcher. OT and NT, thumbnails and cameos of each.

Women of the Bible
US News and  World Report

WebBible Encycyclopedia   
Long alphabetical list with link to each

Women in the Bible   
Wikipedia (free encyclopedia). Multiple links

101 Questions & Answers on Women in the New Testament
Judith Schubert, RSM, Paulist Press 2014, 115 pages,





Can Women be Priests: Pontifical Biblical Commission
PBC Pontifical Biblical Commission report. Origins 6 (July 1, 1976), 92-96.CTSA
This was not published in the AAS (Acta Apostolicae Sedis)http://www.womenpriests.org/classic/appendix.asp .
http://www.womenpriests.org/classic/tetlow4.asp     Extensive bibliography
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Women_in_the_Bible Wikipedia

CTSA (Catholic Theological  Society of America): Tradition and the Ordination of Women

Cardinal Avery Dulles
Tradition says no.

Women Priests: Internet Library   
List of many sources, pro and con.

"Why Not? Scripture, History & Women's  Ordination"   
If subscribed:

The Ordination of Women
Theology Library, long list of bibliography with link

Women and the Priesthood
Sara Butler, Commonweal July 18, 2008, response to the Egan article and a rely to Butler by R. Egan.

Ordination of Women   
Wikipedia (open source encyclopedia)

Cardinal sees no objection

Why Not Women?
Emil A. Wcela, Bishop and Scripture scholar, about female deacons. America magazine Oct 1, 2012.

See" Get the facts in order: A history of womens leadership
By A U.S. Catholic interview
This article appeared in the January 2013 issue of U.S. Catholic (Vol. 78, No. 1, pages 18-22.)

The Meaning of Ordination and How Women Were Gradually Excluded.
Gary Macy, National Catholic Reporter, January 16, 2013. Google Gary Macy for his other writings on this topic.

Phyllis Zagano. The Case for Women Deacons, Commonweal
See the many articles by P. Zagano on this question.  Use Google

Catholic Church Doctrine on the Ordination of Women
From Wipedia

Portuguese  Cardinal sees no objection

Francis A. Sullivan, "Recent Theological Observations on Magisterial Documents and Public Dissent," Theological Studies 58, n. 3 (1997).


Bibliography on the question -- Can Women Be Priests ?
Both articles below contain detailed bibliographies and sources. There is a long bibliography in the first article which has a provocative title. The second article organizes articles for and against. the question. Some readers may debate the inclusion of some authors in the second column, ie, listed under "for." Links are included to the articles for easy access.

Can Women be Ordained to Diaconate?
Ordination of Women to the Diaconate in the Eastern Churches: Essays by Cipriano Vagaggini

Edited by Phyllis Zagano

Christince Schenk, Why are we silencing women (and lay) preachers?

NCR Aug 28, 2014. Cites Canon Law regarding this question.


E. Schilebeeckx, 1980, Ministry (BV 4011. S3413 in SMC library). This book raised a lot of questions and criticisms.
_________ , 1985 , Church with a human face(BV 4006.S3413 in SMC library) where he replies to the opinions, critics and observations received from different parts, mainly from the CDF.
_________ , March 1980 he published with Metz an issue of Concilium (BX 1913.R54 in SMC library) with the title, Right of the Community to a Priest, last article.        

Patrick J. Dunn, Priesthood, 1990 ? A short (and critical) presentation of Schilebeecks' ideas. A re-examination of the Roman Catholic Theology of the Presbyterate ( BX 1912.D87 in SMC library).

John O'Malley, Priesthood, Ministry, and Religious Life: some Historical and Historiographical Considerations, Theological Studies 49, n. 2 (1988).

Oxford Dictionary of the Catholic Church, ed. 3, with bibliography "The idea of priesthood as belonging to the Christian ministry was a gradual development arising from a sacrificial understanding of the Eucharist and based on OT ideas of priesthood; the term priest does not appear to have been applied to Christian ministers until the end of the 2nd century" (p. 1325). (Underlines added).

David Coffee, "The Common and the Ordained Priesthood"
David Coffee, Theological Studies, 58, 1997

Werner G. Jeanrond, Orthodoxy and Ideology
Concilium 2014/2, “Orthodoxy and Ideology,” Werner G. Jeanrond, page 62 .
He asks these questions regarding orthodoxy or heresy about the question of ordination:
• Which sources are needed to determine orthodoxy and which criteria might apply?
• Does the fact that women have not been ordained during a long period in the history of     the Church give us a traditional criterion that might rule out such ordinations for ever?
• Does the ordination of women(or any ordination of men and women) have a foundation in the Bible?
• Is the ordination of women a command of reason for Christians in today’s gender-conscious time?
• Who has the right to control or restrict the theological deliberation of such questions?
• Which proposal for determining orthodoxy should be used?

Francis A. Sullivan, S.J, "Recent Theological Observations on Magisterial Documents and Public Dissent"
Theological Studies 58, n. 3(1997. Editor's Note: "In this note, the author raises questions about some opinions expressed by the Secretary of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith in a recently published article in which, among other issues, he discusses the doctrinal weight to be attributed to a papal declaration that a particular doctrine had been taught infallibly by the ordinary universal magisterium."  The secretary was Cardinal Bertone.

Francis Sullivan alludes to the force of the statement (ie, infallible ?) on women and ordination. "It is well known that such an affirmation has been made by the CDF in its Responsum ad dubium  concerning the doctrine that the Church has no authority to ordain women to the priesthood. To my knowledge, this is the first time that the Roman magisterium has ever declared that a specific doctrine was taught infallibly by the ordinary universal magisterium" (p. 509-510; also 511-512).

Francis A. Sullivan, SJ, "The Definitive Exercise of Teaching Authority," Theological Studies,  V. 75 (3) Sept 2014, 502-514
Francis Sullivan "Discusses the replies that Joseph Ratzinger has given to the question whether John Paul II declared defnitiely and infallibly that the church has no authority to ordain women to the priesthood." Underline added.




Inter insigniores 1976

Declaration on the Admission of Women to the Ministerial Priesthood (15 October 1976) Sacred Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith

Mulieris dignitatem 1988
On the Dignity and Vocation of Women

Christifideles laici 1988
http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/apost_exhortations/documents/hf_jp-ii_exh_30121988_christifideles-laici_en.html On the Vocation and the Mission of the Lay Faithful in the Church and in the World.

Pastores dabo vobis 1992
On the Formation of Priests in the Circumstances of the Present Day

Ordinatio Sacerdotalis 1994
On Reserving Ordination to Men Alone.

Catholic Church Doctrine on the Ordination of Women
From Wipedia

Francis A. Sullivan, S.J, "Recent Theological Observations on Magisterial Documents and Public Dissent"
Theological Studies 58 (1997. Editor's Note: "In this note, the author raises questions about some opinions expressed by the Secretary of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith in a recently published article in which, among other issues, he discusses the doctrinal weight to be attributed to a papal declaration that a particular doctrine had been taught infallibly by the ordinary universal magisterium." 
    The secretary was Cardinal Bertone. On  page 509 510 and 511 and 512, Francis Sullivan alludes to the force of the statement ("infallible or not?) on women and ordination. See above under Articles.

 Pope Francis Q & A plane interview on way back from Brazil July 2013
"On the ordination of women, the church has spoken and said no. John Paul II, in a definitive formulation, said that door is closed."   

Kevin Irwin, Serving the Body of Christ
"The Magisterium on the Eucharist and Ordained Priesthood. Collection, summary, and commentary on official teaching on the Eucharist and Ordained priesthood from Trent through Pope Benedict XVI ...theological exploration based on it." From Paulist catalogue 2013, 160 pages. "


                        WHO PRESIDED AT THE EUCHARIST?

The following entries are by Raymond E. Brown in his various writings on this subject, here mostly from 10 Questions and Answers on the Bible. The underlines are mine.

Responses to 101 Questions and Answers on the Bible, Paulist Press, 1990,
Question 80:
"One does not have to hold that sitting at the Last Supper Jesus foresaw all that would develop from his statements about the bread and wine that he declared to be his body and blood. One does not have to think that he foresaw liturgical developments, the full practice of the eucharist in Christianity, or that he could speak about transubstantiation."

(In a number of places, Brown refers to development, eg, in the section on Sacraments, including Priesthood (Questions 79-85. See Q. 80, Q 81, Q. 96).

Questions 93-96
Q. 93: "...the presbyter-bishops are never said to celebrate the eucharist."
"...we do not know whether a person was regularly assigned to do this task (ie preside) and, if so , who that person was. ...various writers sometimes assert with remarkable surety that the head of the household celebrated the eucharist. That is a guess: we have not a single text in the New Testament that indicates that."

(But then, Brown indicates a possibility about who presided in the early eucharist),
"...In Didache 10.7 (ie, a very early document) we find that, despite a suspicion of wandering prophets, the author insists that they cannot be stopped from eucharistizing. If that means to celebrate the eucharist rather than simply to give thanks, then in some places the prophets may have had a eucharistic role in the liturgy (see also Acts 13:1-2). Eventually, of course the church regulated and regularized the celebration of the eucharist; and indeed that was a development that was inevitable if communities were to be provided regularly with the bread of life. They could not depend on haphazard provision. (Underlines above are mine). "

Q. 94:
"To my mind that means that church recognition is essential for the role of the eucharistic celebrant; and that is why the church has insisted on ordination, which is its established way of giving public acknowledgement to who can and should celebrate the eucharist."

(On the same page, Brown treats the question about whether or not the church could establish another way. He thinks that theoretically, it could, but he does not believe that it will (carefully stated, p. 123).

Q. 95:
" ...but I have no indication that the eucharist was called a sacrifice before the beginning of the second century. When the eucharist began to be thought of as a sacrifice, the person assigned to preside at the eucharist (bishop and later presbyter) would soon be called a priest, since priests were involved with sacrifice (p.125)."

See also by Brown:
Priest and Bishop, Paulist Press, 1970,
   The Absence of Christian Priests in the New Testament, p. 13
   The One Who Presided at the Eucharist,. p. 40-43

The Critical Meaning of the Bible, Paulist Press 1981, Chapter Six: Rethinking the Priesthood Biblically for All and Chapter Eight, Rethinking the Episcopate of the NT Churches.
"One finds no evidence of a corresponding Christian development in the NT (ie, to OT priesthood), for no member of the Church is called a priest in relation to the eucharist (p. 102)."

"Recent studies of Christian worship insist that it was the end of the second century before the term priest began clearly to be applied in a special way to the Christian minister of the eucharist "(p.103). That is, when the aspect of sacrifice began to be emphasized as Brown says in 101 Questions, cited above).

__________,  "Episkope and Episkopos: the New Testament Evidence," Theological Studies, 1980.

See also The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, ed. 3, under Priest