Questions about Osmoregulation
and Excretion

How do animals regulate their water intake in different environments?

How do fish and insects regulate osmotic balance?

What are the sources of water gain and loss?

What are the major problems that animals face with regard to osmoregulation?

What are the major structures involved in osmoregulation and excretion?

Why and how do organisms excrete metabolic wastes (particularly nitrogenous wastes)?

How does the mammalian kidney produce urine?

What is the role of the kidney in pH regulation?