Glossary terms

 

 

active transport - the movement of substances across a biological membrane against its concentration gradient, with the help of energy input and specific transport proteins.

 

alimentary canal - a hollow, tubular cavity extending through animals open at both ends; for ingestion, digestion, and secretion of food materials.

 

apical - opposite to the base; apex.

 

basolateral membrane- the cell membrane along the base and sides of the cell.

 

countercurrent system - a pair of opposed channels containing fluid flowing in opposite directions and having an energetic gradient directed across one channel to the other.

 

countercurrent multiplier - a countercurrent system where the exchange between the two channels is a function of the distance along the gradient.

 

elasmobranch - the cartilaginous fishes (the sharks, skates, and rays).

 

epithelium - a tissue consisting of tightly adjoining cells that cover a surface or line a canal or cavity, and that serves to enclose and protect.

 

euryhaline - able to tolerate wide variations in salinity.

 

fenestrated - many- pored.

 

hemolymph - the blood of invertebrates with open circulatory systems.

 

homeostasis - relative internal stability maintained by physiological control systems.

 

hyperosmotic - containing a higher solute concentration than the surrounding environment.

 

hypertonic - see "hyperosmotic."

 

hypoosomotic - containing a lower solute concentration than the surrounding environment.

 

hypotonic - see "hypoosmotic."

 

integument - a covering or envelope. In animals, the skin, exoskeleton, tunic, cuticle, or other covering.

 

interstitial fluid - fluid between cells or tissues.

 

lumen - the interior of a cavity or duct.

 

metazoan - all animals other than sponges.

 

osmoconformer - an organism that exhibits little or no osmoregulation; body fluids follow changes in osmolarity of environment.

 

osmolarity - the effective osmotic pressure; solute concentration expressed as molarity.

 

osmolyte - a substance that serves the special purpose of raising osmotic pressure, or lowers the freezing point of body fluid.

 

osmoregulator - an organism that controls internal osmolarity with changes in environmental osmolarity.

 

osmosis - the movement of pure solvent form a solution of an area of low solute concentration to an area of high solute concentration through a semipermeable membrane separating the two solutions.

 

oxidative metabolism - metabolic water is produced by cellular respiration when electrons and hydrogen are added to oxygen.

 

renal clearance - that volume of plasma containing the quantity of a freely filtered substance that appears in the glomerular filtrate per unit time.

 

stenohaline - able to tolerate only a narrow range of salinities.

 

teleost - one of the bony fishes.