structures are patterns of physical or mental action that underlie specific
acts of intelligence and
correspond to stages of child development.
development consists of a constant effort to adapt to the environment.
•Vygotsky’s Social Development Theory
•Social interaction plays a fundamental role in the
development of cognition.
•Full development during zone of proximal development
depends on full social interaction.
•The range of skill that can be developed with guidance
of a more competent other or with peer collaboration exceeds what can be attained alone.
learn by “directed living” : combining learning with hands-on projects
be engaged in meaningful and relevant activities which allow them toapply the concepts they are endeavoring to learn.
an active process in which learners construct new ideas or concepts based upon
knowledge.The learner selects and
transforms information, constructs hypotheses, and makes decisions, relying on a cognitive structure to
dialog, spiraling curriculum.
•Papert’s Theory of Constructionism
constructed, not absorbed.Children
don’t “get” ideas, they make them.They
learn best when constructing
personally-relevant artifacts which they then reflect on and discuss.