ESL Teaching & Learning
Concordancing & Collocations
|Concordancers||Concordances||Articles and activities for concordancing|
Concordancers (software to create concordances)
Online Concordancers <http://www.lextutor.ca/concordancers/> -- by Tom Cobb and Chris Greaves
See Vance Stevens' summary page on Concordancing and Text Analysis <http://www.vancestevens.com/textanal.htm> for links to concordancers and articles.
See Free Concordancers <http://www.antlab.sci.waseda.ac.jp/antconc_index.html> -- link to aConCorde no longer works, but the others do.
Textworld.com <http://www.textworld.com/> -- This site contains software and information relating to natural language text. You can download some free programs for use in literary and linguistic computing. These allow you to create your own word lists (vocabulary tables), produce concordances, and to search for collocations; includes 3 concordancers.
WordSmith Tools <http://www.lexically.net/wordsmith/> - Lexical analysis software for data-driven learning and research
Athelstan Online <http://www.athel.com/mono.html> --
a collection of Concordancers and corpora
Concordance 3.3 (PC, free), R.J.C. Watt
Concordance, J.-D. Fekete (PC/MAC, free)
Conc (MAC), SIL International Software
MonoConc Pro (PC), Athelstan
JTW (JustTheWord) <www.just-the-word.com> -- a site for collocations, concordancing, and synonyms (thesaurus); excellent resource for writing, to check likely and unlikely collocations; provided by Sharp Laboratories of Europe; based on the British National Corpus (BNC)
Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA) <http://corpus.byu.edu/coca/> -- by Mark Davies; the interface allows you to search for exact words or phrases, wildcards, lemmas, part of speech, or any combinations of these. You can search for surrounding words (collocates) within a ten-word window (e.g. all nouns somewhere near faint, all adjectives near woman, or all verbs near feelings), which often gives you good insight into the meaning and use of a word. The corpus also allows you to easily limit searches by frequency and compare the frequency of words, phrases, and grammatical constructions, in at least two main ways: by genre and over time. See these YouTube videos on uses of COCA:
GloWbe <http://corpus2.byu.edu/glowbe/> -- Corpus of Global Web based English; composed of 1.9 billion words from 1.8 million web pages in 20 different English-speaking countries. The corpus was created by Mark Davies of Brigham Young University, and it was released in April 2013.
The Compleat Lexical Tutor <http://www.lextutor.ca/> -- by Tom Cobb, with built-in downloadable text-to-speech software and hypertext builder to build resource-linked texts for intensive reading (Turn your own texts into hypertexts! Click here.); to get started, use the Quick Lookup box (upper right) to see a concordance of how the word/phrase is used in a collection of online corpora; good for advanced writing and vocabulary (to see examples of lexical and grammatical collocations)
British National Corpus <http://thetis.bl.uk/lookup.html> -- an online simple search of the BNC -- a 100-million corpus of current written and spoken British English from many different sources.
Collins WordbanksOnline English <http://www.collins.co.uk/Corpus/CorpusSearch.aspx> -- a sample of The Collins WordbanksOnline English corpus, which is composed of 56 million words of contemporary written and spoken text; use the query syntax to specify word combinations, wildcards, part-of-speech tags, and so on.
Web Concordancer (by the Virtual Language Center of Hong Kong) < http://www.edict.com.hk/concordance/default.htm> -- The VLC Web Concordancer is the easiest to use concordancing program - simply type in a word or phrase to search for, select a corpus (file of texts) and hit <Enter> or press the search button to start the search. You can select any of the corpus files to search from the selection list. You can also get concordance examples of words you look up in the Net Dictionary as in the example below. Find examples of uses at http://www.edict.com.hk/StudyGuide/concorda.htm.
Simple Concordance Program <http://web.bham.ac.uk/A.Reed/scp/> -- free concordancer by Textworld.com
Articles and activities for concordancing
Concordancing with Language Learners: Why? When? What? <http://www.ruf.rice.edu/~barlow/stevens.html> -- (V. Stevens) CAELL Journal, Summer 1995
Using concordance programs in the modern foreign languages classroom, ICT4LT Module 2.4. Information and Communications Technology for Language Teachers. http://www.ict4lt.org/en/en_mod2-4.htm. (updated May 4, 2007; maintained by Graham Davies)
Tutorial: Concordances and Corpora, by Catherine N. Ball (1996), http://www.georgetown.edu/faculty/ballc/corpora/tutorial.html
Emerging Technologies: Tools and Trends in Corpora Use for Teaching and Learning, by Bob Godwin-Jones (2001, Sept.). Language Learning & Technology 5 (3). http://llt.msu.edu/vol5num3/emerging/
Concordancing for English Language Teachers, by Garry Dyck (1999). http://home.cc.umanitoba.ca/~gdyck/conc.html
Windows Media File presentation: "Resource-assisted learning: using computers to study language" by Chris Greaves
Full paper: "Resource-assisted learning: a vocabulary on-demand model for online learning" by Chris Greaves
"Can the rate of lexical acquisition from reading be increased? An experiment in reading French with a suite of on-line resources." by Tom Cobb, Chris Greaves & Marlise Horst
English Language Institute Technology Tip of the Month--Concordancing Activity: Connecting clauses
Studying grammar with the aid of the concordancer
Using a Concordancer in Literary Studies by Maria Rosario Caballero Rodriguez published in The European English Messenger Vol VII/2 pp 59-62, Autumn 1999
Sensing the Winds of Change: An Introduction to Data-Driven Learning <http://www.nuis.ac.jp/~hadley/publication/windofchange/windsofchange.htm> -- by Gregory Hadley
ICAME Journal <http://www.hd.uib.no/icame/ij22/> -- suggests that electronic newspapers can provide a way to create corpus.
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Last Updated: April 22, 2016
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