English for Academic Purposes
Lecturers use discourse cues (signal words) to indicate relationships among ideas.
MAIN/LECTURE TOPIC: Today we are going to discuss/talk about ...; Today's lecture is about ...
PREVIEW/ORGANIZATION: First, we will discuss...; then we will examine ..., and we will conclude with ...
DEFINITION : Let's define ...; can be defined as
SERIES/PROGRESSION OF POINTS: first, ...; the first ...is ...; first of all, ...; second, ...; secondly, ...; lastly, ...; the last ... is ..
ADDITIONAL POINT: another; the next ...; furthermore; moreover; beside ...
CAUSE-EFFECT: lead to; result in; become; produce; create; generate; as a result; consequently; therefore; thus
CONTRAST: however; in contrast to ...; unlike; different from
SIMILARITY: like; similar to; likewise; similarly
REASON/PURPOSE: for this reason; because of...; in order to; because
VOCABULARY/SYNONYM: means/meant; is called; is known as;
EXAMPLE: can be illustrated by; let's look at an example; for instance; for example; is best shown by giving an example
CLASSIFICATION: can be divided into several groups; can be grouped according to ...; can be classified according to ...
EMPHASIS: in fact; indeed; actually; on the contrary
DIGRESSION: Let me tell you a story about a friend who ...; by the way
CONCLUSION: to summarize; as we have seen; to conclude my remarks
RESTATEMENT: in other words (i.e.); this/that means that . . .; that is to say …
© 2005: Christine Bauer-Ramazani; last updated: November 10, 2017