English for Academic Purposes
Prof. Bauer-Ramazani

 

Academic Skills
Discourse Cues in Listening

 

 

Lecturers use discourse cues (signal words) to indicate relationships among ideas.

 

MAIN/LECTURE TOPIC:   Today we are going to discuss/talk about ...; Today's lecture is about ...

 

PREVIEW/ORGANIZATION:  First, we will discuss...; then we will examine ..., and we will conclude with ...

 

DEFINITION :  Let's define ...; can be  defined as

 

SERIES/PROGRESSION OF POINTS:  first, ...; the first ...is ...; first of all, ...; second, ...; secondly, ...; lastly, ...; the last ... is ..

 

ADDITIONAL POINT: another; the next ...; furthermore; moreover; beside ...         

 

CAUSE-EFFECT: lead to; result in; become; produce; create; generate; as a result; consequently; therefore; thus

 

CONTRAST:  however; in contrast to ...; unlike; different from

 

SIMILARITY: like; similar to; likewise; similarly

 

REASON/PURPOSE:  for this reason; because of...; in order to; because

           

VOCABULARY/SYNONYM:  means/meant; is called; is known as;

 

EXAMPLE:  can be illustrated by; let's look at an example; for instance; for example; is best shown by giving an example

 

CLASSIFICATION:  can be divided into several groups; can be grouped according to ...; can be classified according to ...

 

EMPHASIS:  in fact; indeed; actually; on the contrary

 

DIGRESSION:  Let me tell you a story about a friend who ...; by the way

 

CONCLUSION:  to summarize; as we have seen; to conclude my remarks

 

RESTATEMENT: in other words (i.e.); this/that means that . . .; that is to say

 

2005: Christine Bauer-Ramazani; last updated: November 10, 2017