English for Academic Purposes
Prof. Bauer-Ramazani


Academic Skills
Discourse Cues in Listening



Lecturers use discourse cues (signal words) to indicate relationships among ideas.


MAIN/LECTURE TOPIC:   Today we are going to discuss/talk about ...; Today's lecture is about ...


PREVIEW/ORGANIZATION:  First, we will discuss...; then we will examine ..., and we will conclude with ...


DEFINITION :  Let's define ...; can be  defined as


SERIES/PROGRESSION OF POINTS:  first, ...; the first ...is ...; first of all, ...; second, ...; secondly, ...; lastly, ...; the last ... is ..


ADDITIONAL POINT: another; the next ...; furthermore; moreover; beside ...         


CAUSE-EFFECT: lead to; result in; become; produce; create; generate; as a result; consequently; therefore; thus


CONTRAST:  however; in contrast to ...; unlike; different from


SIMILARITY: like; similar to; likewise; similarly


REASON/PURPOSE:  for this reason; because of...; in order to; because


VOCABULARY/SYNONYM:  means/meant; is called; is known as;


EXAMPLE:  can be illustrated by; let's look at an example; for instance; for example; is best shown by giving an example


CLASSIFICATION:  can be divided into several groups; can be grouped according to ...; can be classified according to ...


EMPHASIS:  in fact; indeed; actually; on the contrary


DIGRESSION:  Let me tell you a story about a friend who ...; by the way


CONCLUSION:  to summarize; as we have seen; to conclude my remarks


RESTATEMENT: in other words (i.e.); this/that means that . . .; that is to say


2005: Christine Bauer-Ramazani; last updated: September 02, 2019